Vladimir Bukovsky spent a total of 12 years in Soviet prisons, labor camps, and forced-treatment psychiatric hospitals for his outspoken Opposition to the communist regime and his successful smuggling of documents detailing the Soviets' political use of psychiatric institutions. In 1966, he was kept in various psykhushkas without habeas corpus after organizing a demonstration at Pushkin Square in Moscow in defense of anti-Soviet writers. After releasing the incriminating psychiatric documents in 1971, he was arrested for the collection and spread of anti-Soviet propaganda. While in prison, he co-authored: A Manual on Psychiatry for Dissidents, to help other dissidents fight psychiatric torture. Since his release, he has published numerous anti-communist works, including his bestselling autobiography To Build a Castle: My Life as a Dissenter. Since 1976, he has lived in Cambridge, England. He currently serves as an active member of: the Gratitude Fund, the International Council of the Human Rights Foundation, and the United Kingdom Independence Party.